A study on relationship between the living environment and activities of daily living (ADL) was conducted to all eldery persons of more than 100 years old in 1993. The response was received from 840 males (73.6%) of 100-107 years of ages. Living environment was devided into three areas according to the geographical areas (Hokkaido-Tohoku-Hokuriku-Sanin, Kanto-Tokai-Kinki, and Sanyo-Shikoku-Kyushu), two community types according to an urban or an agricultural or fishing village, and four community sizes according to number of the population. Factors considered to contribute to a high level of ADL were evaluated. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. According to the geographical area, the independence rate (percentage of individuals who were competent for ADL) was significantly higher in Sanyo-Shikoku-Kyushu area than in Kanto-Tokai-Kinki area in all items examined (transferring, feeding, continence and bathing). Regional differences were observed in the state of living, state of medical care, social and cultural activities, and dietary habit since the age of 80 years, watching TV and an interest in health as social and cultural activites were related to high independence rates in areas such as Sanyo. 2. According to the community type, the state of medical care, whether there was a family doctor, social and cultural activities, and dietary habit since tha age of 80 years in agricultural and fishing communities appeared to be favorable for independence rate, but there were not observed significant relations. 3. According to the community size, none of the residents in large cities were independent in eating, continence, or bathing. The independence rate of continence was significantly lower than that in small cities and towns or villages in rural districts, suggesting that large cities are an environment unfavorable for socially independent longevity. The household composition, social and cultural activities, and dietary habit since the age of 80 years were different according to the community size, and reading newspapers of social and cultural activities was related to high independence rates in small cities and towns or villages of rural districts.