The PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A. thiooxidans, and A. caldus strains were scquenced and evaluated for differentiation and identification of these bacteria. The total length of the 16S-23S ISRs of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans strains and A.caldus GO-1 were 441, 456, nd 379bp, respectively. Two genes. encoding tRNA and tRNA, and the box A-like sequences were highly conserved in the ISRs of all Acidithiobacillus species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA ISRs digested by HaeIII and AluI could clearly discriminate A. ferrooxidans from A. thiooxidans and A. caldus. The results indicated that RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S ISRs is an easy and rapid method for discrimination and identification of Acidithiobacillus species.