|| For the rapid increase of the elders in population in Japan after the 2nd world war, the arrangement of medical care for aged persons, both therapeutic and preventive, has become the serious social problem. To estimate the possibility of care at home and needs of elders and their family for public and volunteer services, questionnaire survey was carried out at Konko town in Okayama prefecture, Japan, in August 1990. More than half of the 105 elders older than 65 years and living alone (group A, 9 males and 96 females) replied to want to be cared for at home and 178 families with elders (group B) wanted to care for them at home. As for services they would wish to be offered when they would become bedridden at home, while group A wished to be visited and cared for by 'physician', 'home helper' and 'neighbor' in order of high rate group B 'physician', 'public health nurse' and 'nurse'. As for facility or assistance services, the former wanted 'purchasing, sweeping and washing', food delivery' and 'calling on' and the latter 'care consultation', 'assist of body bath' and 'economic aid'. Other supports or cares were also hopefully expected by both groups. The results shows that well-arrangement and promotion of a variety of constitional and personal support for home cares for elders in the community must be urged.