|| Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study detected the oncogenic HPV genotypes in cervical neoplasia in relation to clinicopathological findings using a cross-sectional descriptive method in 2011 and 2012. Cervical swabs and colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy tissues were collected from 108 women (median age 45 years;range 20-78) showing cervical cytological changes at Sanpya General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar. HPV DNA testing and genotyping were performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. HPV was identified in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (44.4%), CIN2 (63.2%), CIN3 (70.6%), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (74.1%). The association between cervical neoplasia and HPV positivity was highly significant (p＝0.008). Most patients infected with HPV were between 40-49 years of age, and the youngest were in the 20- to 29-year-old age group. The most common genotype was HPV 16 (65.6%) with the following distribution:70% in CIN1, 41.7% in CIN2, 91.7% in CIN3, and 60% in SCC. HPV-31 was the second-most frequent (21.9%):30% in CIN1, 33.3% in CIN2, 8.3% in CIN3, and 15% in SCC. The third-most frequent-genotype was HPV-18 (7.8%):8.3% in CIN1, and 20% in SCC. Another genotype was HPV-58 (4.7%):16.7% in CIN1 and 5% in SCC. The majority of CIN/SCC cases were associated with HPV genotypes 16, 31, 18, and 58. If oncogenic HPV genotypes are positive, the possibility of cervical neoplasia can be predicted. Knowledge of the HPV genotypes distribution can predict the effectiveness of the currently used HPV vaccine.