JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/58071
Title Alternative Clusters and Hierarchies
FullText URL oer_051_2-3_039_052.pdf
Author Tomae, Hisao|
Abstract  Porter( 1990) proposes the concept of“ cluster”. The purpose of this paper is to examine how clusters are positioned between the market and the hierarchies, as Porter( 1998) presents the challenge. At the same time, there are intermediate organizations such as a series between the market and the hierarchy, so we will also discuss them. As for the hierarchical organization, we conducted a case study of Yokoyama Seimou, and examined its characteristics. The significance of this paper is the following two points.( 1)Hierarchical organization, competition by visible hands, division of process in Ota Ward, and cluster can simultaneously achieve productivity and innovation. (2) Regarding Yokoyama Seimou’s case study, the company is located in an area that can hardly be called a cluster and is a hierarchical organization that vertically integrates processes, the company has succeeded in meaningful joint development with other companies. As an implication for the region, it is also important to view the whole of Japan as a network, regardless of the cluster.<br/>  The structure of this paper will be discussed in the order of Porter’s theory of clusters, existing research on intermediate organizations, Yokoyama’s case study, discussion, and conclusion.
Publication Title Okayama Economic Review
Published Date 2020-03-19
Volume volume51
Issue issue2-3
Start Page 39
End Page 52
ISSN 2433-4146
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2020 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/53100
Title Alternative Management of Global Niche Top Enterprises as Supplier
FullText URL oer_046_2_147_155.pdf
Author Tomae, Hisao|
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 2014-12-18
Volume volume46
Issue issue2
Start Page 147
End Page 155
ISSN 0386-3069
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2014 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
NAID 120005540378
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/41500
Title Alternative The Japanese Companies' Problems in Global Competitions
FullText URL oer_031_3_087_112.pdf
Author Tomae, Hisao|
Abstract Japanese companies that practice the Japanese style management have pursued scale merit profits by mass production of stand-alone goods and had stronger competitiveness than US companies in '80 s. US companies, especially, cannot follow the overlapping development practicing which the Japanese companies have started. In '90 s, however, US companies have begun the overlapping development practicing by using telecommunication and information technology, and furthermore they do it interorganizationally among firms. As the results, US firms have stronger competitiveness than Japanese firms in the high-tech fields of system goods industries. Japanese companies have to be divided into two groups. One is stand-alone goods industries in which they operate mass production as before. Another is system goods industries in which they must unlearn the past success experiences and have to promote new innovation system. At the same time, they need to change the strategy in global business in the case that they belong to system goods industries. In Global Industries, Bartlett and Ghoshal insist on the 'transnational solution', but it should be noted that their theory is based on the study of stand-alone goods industries. We believe that the virtual corporation has more competitiveness than the transnational organization in system goods industries.
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 1999-12-10
Volume volume31
Issue issue3
Start Page 87
End Page 112
ISSN 0386-3069
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 120002695980
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/41466
Title Alternative Corporate Ideologies and Visions of Top-managements in the Local Small Manufacturing Industries
FullText URL oer_032_2_035_057.pdf
Author Tomae, Hisao|
Abstract This paper is concerned with corporate ideologies and visions of topmanagements in the local small manufacturing industries. We assume that corporate ideologies are unchanging values and that visions of topmanagement evolve according to actual interaction. Further we assume that visions are both value and factual premises. The questionnaire survey is analyzed. The analyses imply the followings. (1) Even in the local small companies, visions of top-managements are important for corporate performance. (2) In high performance small companies of local area, visions of top-managements relate to corporate ideologies. (3) In the high performance small companies, when top-management want to challenge projecting strategies, the projecting strategies are related to visions of top-managements and corporate ideologies. (4) In the high performance small companies, visions of top-managements and corporate ideologies lead to flexibility modification, but in low performance small companies oflocal area, field levels lead to flexibility modification.
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 2000-09-10
Volume volume32
Issue issue2
Start Page 35
End Page 57
ISSN 0386-3069
language 日本語
File Version publisher
NAID 110000130062
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/12407
Title Alternative Evolving Technical Capabilities in Turmoil : A Field Research on The Value Chain Network of Denim Jeans Industry in The Setouchi District (1)
FullText URL 39_2_001_020.pdf
Author Fujii, Daiji| Tomae, Hisao| Yamamoto, Tomoyuki| Inoue, Jiro|
Abstract 本稿は,岡山大学経済学部と(財)岡山経済研究所の共同研究プロジェクトの一環として行われた調査研究の報告書に加筆修正を加えたものである。その報告書は,会員組織である岡山経済研究所の会員向け冊子として配布される予定であり,それとは別に経営学などの研究者に向けて成果を公表することが,本稿の目的となっている。紙幅の制約上,いくつかの独立した論考としての体裁をとりながら連続して掲載する予定であり,その構成は以下の通りである。
Abstract Alternative This research is a field study on the production−distribution network of denim jeans in the Setouchi district, being faced with the recent global competitive pressures. It has long been said that the textile and apparel industries in developed countries have been challenged by those developing economies that enjoy the advantages of low labor costs. The Setouchi district, which have had a long tradition of the industries, was no exception. It suffered a serious recession during the 1990s and 2000s and have lost their major customer bases. Amongst them, however, the denim jeans industry could survive the period by handling the negative impact from abroad in its own way. Since the denim jeans industry first appeared in Japan in the 1960s, the district has established itself as the center of the industry and long sustained its better competitive positions. It seems true that successful manufacturers not only pass their traditional production capabilities to younger generations but also promote technical evolution to make the new capabilities fit into the new market conditions, which are more quality oriented, fragmented and unstable. We conduct a field research to illuminate to what extent the Setouchi district has been successful in the denim jeans production and distribution and how it has been achieved. This paper, which is a part of the report of our whole research, especially attempts to suggest a potential approach to the industry, which owes a lot to a new philosophical movement called ‘communities of practice.’ We suggest that our new approach should be more appropriate than conventional approaches in that it can firstly explain the psychological climates of the Setouchi district which are characteristically individualistic. Secondly, although local economies were previously understood to be facilitated by the network based succession and diffusion of technical and commercial knowledge, it seems that manufacturers’ learning behaviors in this district tend to rely more on the independent trial and error method.
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 2007-09
Volume volume39
Issue issue2
Start Page 1
End Page 20
ISSN 03863069
Related Url http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12400/ http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12383/
language 日本語
Copyright Holders 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
NAID 120002304912
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/12400
Title Alternative Evolving Technical Capabilities in Turmoil : A Field Research on The Value Chain Network of Denim Jeans Industry in The Setouchi District (2)
FullText URL 39_3_023_042.pdf
Author Fujii, Daiji| Tomae, Hisao| Yamamoto, Tomoyuki| Inoue, Jiro|
Abstract 本稿の目的は,産地型集積の維持・発展メカニズムの分析に先立つ予備的作業として,三備地区が他の繊維・アパレル産地に比較して産地力の持続に成功していることをフィールド調査を通じて考察することである。これに必要な作業としてまず,デニム・ジーンズの歴史や,ジーンズの消費財としての特殊性,三備地区がジーンズに出会ってから今日に到るまでの大きな流れなどを掴む。また倉敷市児島地区を中心とした製販ネットワークの現状を具体的に報告する。前稿で述べたように,産業集積にアプローチするうえで比較優位説を展開した「ヘクシャー=オリン定理」を採用するのと並行して,Porter(1990a,1990b)が前提するようなプレイヤーの自律的行 為能力を重視したいというのが,本研究の立場であった。ヘクシャー=オリン定理を適用すると,綿花の産地であった三備地区で綿素材を中心とした繊維・アパレル産業が形成されたことを理解しやすいであろうし,時代の変化に応じて企業が戦略的に経営の舵を切る様子に着目し,児島地区を中心とした製販ネットワークを産地型集積の一例として捉えることもまた有意義な作業であろう。ジーンズ産地の持続・発展のメカニズムを考察するとき,さらに一歩踏み込んで既存の産業集積論では説明しきれない部分を探し出し,より包括的な理解を構築したいと考えている。そこで<実践コミュニティ>という新しい視座の導入を試みるのだけれども,具体的には,産地内の企業間の切磋琢磨や競争的な試行錯誤が,ジーンズ産地の持続・発展に影響を与えた可能性を探求したいと考えている。ただしその分析作業は,次章以降の課題である。本章では,既存の理論を若干意識しながら,まずデニム・ジーンズや三備地区の簡単な歴史を振り返り,ジーンズ固有の厚地,芯白,綾織といった特性について説明し,三備地区が綿花の産地から紡績,織物,縫製など繊維産地へ発展した流れを追う(第2節)。続いて,企業が戦略的に経営の舵を切っていく「ジーンズ国産化」の流れを追う(第3節)。すなわち他のアパレル製品と比較してデニム・ジーンズの最大の特徴であり,またアメリカのジーンズには本来なかった洗い加工技術を中心にして,三備地区のジーンズ作りに対する取組みを概観する。続いてインタビューを通じて得られた三備地区に関するイメージを報告する。まず集積の主体である企業群を大きく3つの業態に分割し,それらの特徴を理念型として整理し,それぞれのメリットとデメリットを報告する(第4節)。続いて集積メリットのひとつとして,若手経営者の起業を促す要素を考察し,どのような試みが展開されているのかを報告する(第5節)。
Abstract Alternative This paper reports our field research regarding the denim jeans production− distribution network in the Setouchi district. As argued in the previous paper, existing literatures fail to explain why and how the district has achieved technical and commercial sustainability regardless of facing fierce competitive pressures from abroad. We report some facts that the literatures have not fully acknowledged and therefore will lead us to reconstruct the way of seeing how the district works. The behaviors of the players in our research field seem to be more complex than theoretically predicted. A current popular way of explaining industrial agglomerations is the network based approach that can suitably illuminate numerous invisible networks functioning as flexible value chains to respond to the received orders from outside of the district. However, this approach is said to be less powerful when we turn our focus onto the players’ individualistic and innovative behaviors since networks are essentially the human relations through which information and knowledge is collaboratively shared by the players. We believe that people in the district are highly intrinsically motivated, change their business models and hold ambivalent feelings towards the old paradigm where collaborative networks share incoming consumer information, technical knowledge and revenues from the market. We firstly report the history of Japan’s denim jeans industry. Secondly, the competitive structure of the recent market follows. Lastly we focus on the recent entrants into the market who symbolically illuminate the vitality of the district. We will elaborate in our forthcoming paper a possible mechanism underlying the sustainable competitiveness of the district.
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 2007-12
Volume volume39
Issue issue3
Start Page 23
End Page 42
ISSN 03863069
Related Url http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12407/ http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12383/
language 日本語
Copyright Holders 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
NAID 120002304834
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/12383
Title Alternative Evolving Technical Capabilities in Turmoil :A Field Research on The Value Chain Network of Denim Jeans Industry in The Setouchi District (3)
FullText URL 39_4_177_187.pdf
Author Fujii, Daiji| Tomae, Hisao| Yamamoto, Tomoyuki| Inoue, Jiro|
Abstract This paper is the final report of our field research of the denim Jeans value chain network in the Setouchi district. Based on the argument delivered in our earlier reports, we now concentrate on the mechanism which underlies the survival of the district under the fierce global competitive pressures. We suggest that local economies such as ours full of small and medium sized producers of denim jeans tend to have individualistic industrial climates. Textile converters and fashion designers and the like do not hesitate to learn from their competitors by imitation. This is because they usually receive training on commercial knowledge and technical skills through their actual daily jobs instead of formal education at professional schools. Imitation is not only an important part of their professional learning, but also one of effective ways to save experimental costs to raise numerous ideas and prototype new products. This tendency creates a certain level of homogeneity of product designs, which also creates certain pressures for the manufacturers to differentiate themselves from their own competitors. Under this anbivalent iudustrial climate, the manufacturers seek their uniqueness through improvised reinterpretation of the original product designs. This uniqueness which creeps in the imitation process may come from the recent movement where some of young and entrepreneurial startups and the like acquire deserted production capacities that used to be owned by older generations. Faced with the recent fierce competitive pressures, such old generations have lost their motivation to continue their business and deserted their production facilities. The younger generation gives lives to such facilities and receives wider learning opportunities and flexible production capabilities under the new low−volume diversified production paradigm. Under this new circumstance, planned obsolescence of products becomes common and overall design and production capabilities are deemed to evolve quite quickly and effectively.
Abstract Alternative 本章の目的は,国内生産とりわけ三備地区でのジーンズ作りについて,インタビューを中心に行った調査結果を整理しながら報告し,そこからジーンズ産地力の持続メカニズムを抽出することである。第二次世界大戦の終結後,米国文化とともに,その象徴的な存在として中古ジーンズが日本に流入しはじめ,1950年代には活発に取引されるようになった。1960年代には国産ジーンズが若者を中心に人気を博し,三備地区を中心にジーンズ産地が形成されたが,産地形成には伝統的な技術蓄積の存在,リーディング企業の発生,染色の技術革新などが寄与していた。その後,ジーンズ市場の拡大と ともに,紆余曲折しながらもジーンズ産地としての当地が発展を遂げてきた。ところが1990年代後半になると,ジーンズ生産の海外移転が始まった。また現在ファッションのサイクルはより短く,ユーザーの嗜好が多様化するなかで,市場の新たな要求に応えていける能力が求められるようになり,ジーンズ産地は変質を迫られてきた。現在,三備地区は変化の激しいジーンズ市場に対して機敏に対応できる生産力を有しているとされる。ジーンズの高付加価値化を可能にする技術・ノウハウが内在し,事業や技術を確実に伝承していくだけの起業者を確保している産地といえるかもしれない。この産地力の持続メカニズムを多少なりとも明らかにしたいというのが,本章の目的である。比較優位説が予想するように,綿花栽培に適した風土を有し,歴史的にも綿素材のアパレル製品供給力が高かったことは言うまでもない。本章はそれに加えて,産地力の持続性を説明する,産地に住み働く人々の自律的行為能力を加味したメカニズムを探求することをとくに狙っている。強力な集権的コントロールを欠いた産地型集積のなかでも,この地方は個人の我の強さや商魂の逞しさで知られており,そうした特長をもつ中小企業の経営者達が産地で生活し働くことから何をメリットと感じ,また産地全体として何らかの経済効果を挙げているとすれば,それはいかなる論理によって可能なのかを考察する。以下では第2部での報告に基づいて,産地全体に底流する産地力の持続メカニズムの論理化を試みる(第2節)。基本的には第1部で論じた協調的学習の場,すなわち〈実践コミュニティ〉として産地を眺め,メカニズムの抽出に努めている。
Publication Title 岡山大学経済学会雑誌
Published Date 2008-03
Volume volume39
Issue issue4
Start Page 177
End Page 187
ISSN 03863069
Related Url http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12407/ http://eprints.lib.okayama-u.ac.jp/12400/
language 日本語
Copyright Holders 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
NAID 120002304821
Author 戸前 壽夫|
Published Date 2004
Publication Title 北東アジア経済研究
Volume volume1
Issue issue1
Content Type Departmental Bulletin Paper
JaLCDOI 10.18926/1708