To evaluate the effects of preventive measures and medical treatment on cancer, the death rate per 100, 000 population according to Vital Statistics and the patient rate per 100,000 population from the Patient Survey were statistically analyzed. Results revealed it to be more appropriate to use the inpatient rather than the total of both inpatient and outpatient rate, in understanding the actual condition of patients. Annual trends of patient and death rates differ among sites, sexes and age groups, suggesting that the total annual trend of all sites for cancer does not reveal the actual situation. Moreover relation between patient and death rates differed by site. It was also seen that treatment efficacy has increased for stomach cancer, but not for lung, liver (male) or breast (female) cancer.