We investigated changes in life styles and health problems among the aged population in a rural area by means of a questionnaire differentiated as to age. Responses were obtained from 1,545 (92.5%) out of 1,671 people 65 years of age or over living in Ohgata Town, Kochi Prefecture, in March of 1982. Two hundred people in hospitals or nursing homes were excluded from the survey. Among the aged of Ohgata, 1.6% and 9.0% were living in hospitals or nursing homes, respectively. Those in the hospitals increased with increasing age. Five percent of the males and 22.8% of the females lived alone, and no difference was observed according to age group. Sixty percent of the males and 80.2% of the females had jobs or roles at home, and significant decreases in those with roles were observed from 70 and 80 years of age or over in males, and between any successive 5-year age group in females. Seventy-seven percent of the respondents met with their friends, and 57.3% joined in the activities of old peoples' clubs. These rates decreased steeply from 80 or over in males and 85 or over in females. About the perceived health status, 54.9% of males and 51.3% of females had no complaints and those without preblems decreased slowly with increasing age. Those who needed others' help in any of the activities of daily life such as eating, going to the toilet, bathing, dressing, washing the face or walking were 6.3% of males and 6.6% of females, and were over 20% among those 85 or over. Those with troubles in walking but without troubles in other activities were 7.2%, increasing steeply from 80 or over. These findings demonstrated that age factors had important impacts on the health and welfare needs of aged.